Although some kinds of memory loss are normal parts of agingthe changes due to aging are not severe enough to interfere with the level of function. The best-studied "risk" gene is the one that encodes apolipoprotein E apoE. It is certainly true that women live longer than men, but age alone does not seem to explain the increased frequency in women. Some of the warning symptoms and signs include. Individuals who exhibit several of these symptoms should see a physician for a complete evaluation.
It is normal for certain kinds of memory, such as the ability to remember lists of words, to decline with normal aging. When memory and other problems with thinking start to consistently affect the usual level of functioning; families begin to suspect that something more than "normal aging" is going on. Mild personality changes, such as less spontaneity, apathy, aricept fact sheet, and a tendency to withdraw from social interactions, may occur early in the illness.
As the disease progresses, problems in abstract thinking and in other intellectual functions develop. Further disturbances in behavior and appearance may also be seen at this point, such as agitation, irritability, quarrelsomeness, and a diminishing ability to dress appropriately.
Later in the course of the disorder, affected individuals may become confused or disoriented about what month or year it is, be unable to describe accurately where they live, or be unable to name a place being visited. Eventually, aricept fact sheet, patients may wander, aricept fact sheet unable to engage in conversation, erratic in mood, uncooperative, and lose bladder and bowel control.
In late stages of the disease, persons may become totally incapable of caring for themselves. Death can then follow, perhaps from pneumonia or some other problem that occurs in severely deteriorated how about the apple weight loss of health. Such an assessment should include at least three major components; 1 a thorough general medical workup, 2 a neurological examination including testing of memory and other functions of thinking, aricept fact sheet, and 3 a psychiatric evaluation to assess mood, anxietyand clarity of thought.
Such an evaluation takes time - usually at least an hour. In the United States healthcare system, neurologists, psychiatrists, or geriatricians frequently become involved. Nonetheless, any physician may be able to perform a thorough evaluation.
The American Academy of Neurology has published guidelines that include aricept fact sheet of the brain in the initial evaluation of patients with dementia. Such testing is neither widely available nor recommended. Nonetheless, many clinical trials suggest that these medications are superior to placebos sugar pills in relieving some symptoms.
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers produced aricept fact sheet nerves that the nerves use to communicate with each other in order to carry out their functions. Substantial research has demonstrated that acetylcholine is important in the ability to form new memories.
The cholinesterase inhibitors ChEIs block the breakdown of acetylcholine. As a result, more acetylcholine is available in the brain, and it may become easier to form new memories. Four ChEIs have been approved by the FDA, but only donepezil hydrochloride Ariceptrivastigmine Exelonand galantamine Razadyne - previously called Reminyl are used by most physicians because the fourth drug, tacrine Cognex has more undesirable side effects than the other three.
Several studies suggest that the progression of symptoms of patients on these drugs seems to plateau for six to 12 months, but inevitably progression then begins again. The principal side effects of ChEIs involve the gastrointestinal system and include nauseavomitingcramping, and diarrhea. Usually these side effects can be controlled with change in size or timing of the dose or administering the medications with a small amount of food.
A majority of patients will tolerate therapeutic doses of ChEIs. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. One theory suggests that too much glutamate may be bad for the brain and cause deterioration of nerve cells. Memantine Namenda works by partially decreasing the effect of glutamate to activate nerve cells, aricept fact sheet. Studies have demonstrated that some patients on memantine can care for themselves better than patients on sugar pills placebos.
Memantine is approved for treatment of moderate and severe dementia, and studies did not show it was helpful in mild dementia. It is also possible to treat patients with both AchEs and memantine without loss of effectiveness of either medication or an increase in side effects.
Cognitive rehabilitation, whereby a patient practices on a computer program for training memorymay or may not be of benefit. Further studies of this method are needed. If these behaviors are infrequent or mild, they often do not require treatment with medication. Non-pharmacologic measures can be very useful. Nevertheless, frequently these symptoms are so severe that it becomes impossible for caregivers to take care of the patient, and treatment with medication to control these symptoms becomes necessary.
Many different classes of agents have been tried to treat agitation including:. Studies are conflicting about the usefulness of these different drug classes. However, more recent studies have not demonstrated superiority of the newer antipsychotics, aricept fact sheet. Some research shows that these newer antipsychotics may be associated with increased risk of stroke or sudden death than the older antipsychotics, aricept fact sheet many physicians believe this question is still not resolved.
Such patients may benefit from a trial of antidepressant medication, aricept fact sheet. Benzodiazepines such as diazepam Valium or lorazepam Ativan may be associated with increased confusion and memory impairment. However, other specialists may recommend other classes of medications. Sleep improvement measures, such as sunlight, aricept fact sheet, adequate treatment of aricept fact sheetand limiting nighttime fluids to prevent the need for urination, should also be implemented.
Aricept fact sheet die because they have difficulty swallowing or walking and these changes make overwhelming infections, such as pneumoniamuch more likely. Moreover, throughout much of the course of the illness, individuals maintain the capacity for giving and receiving love, sharing warm interpersonal relationships, and participating in a variety of meaningful activities with family and friends. Aricept fact sheet the piano might become too stressful in the face of increasing mistakes, but singing along with others may still be satisfying.
The chessboard may have to be put away, but playing tennis may still be enjoyable. Depression, severe uneasiness, paranoiaor delusions may accompany or result from the disease, but these conditions can often be improved by appropriate treatments.
Caregiving is a distressing experience. The short-term educational programs are well liked by family caregivers and can lead to a aricept fact sheet increase in disease knowledge and greater confidence among caregivers.
Learn the warning signs of dementia, aricept fact sheet. Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options for treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy.
Readers Comments 1 Share Your Story. Readers Comments 3 Share Your Story. Readers Comments 27 Share Your Story. Readers Comments 6 Share Your Story, aricept fact sheet. Readers Comments 2 Share Your Story. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Dementia including Alzheimer disease Beyond the Basics. Please discuss your symptoms and concerns. Please share your experience. Amyloidosis is a group of diseases resulting from abnormal deposition of certain proteins amyloids in various bodily areas.
The amyloid proteins may either be deposited in one particular area of the body localized amyloidosis or they may be deposited throughout the body systemic amyloidosis. There are three types of systemic amyloidosis: Primary amyloidosis is not associated with any other diseases and aricept fact sheet considered a disease entity of its own, aricept fact sheet.
Secondary amyloidosis occurs as a result of another illness. Familial Mediterranean Fever is a form of familial inherited amyloidosis. Amyloidosis treatment involves treating the underlying illness and accupunture for arthritis of the knee aricept fact sheet failure. The disease attacks the nerve cells responsible for the control of voluntary muscles.
Early symptoms include cramping, aricept fact sheet, twitching, or stiffness of the muscles; slurred nasal speech; difficulty swallowing or chewing, and muscle weakness in an arm or leg. Currently, the cause of ALS is not known.
ALS is a fatal disease. No cure has been found for ALS, however, the drug riluzole Rilutek is FDA approved, and this drug reduces the damage to motor neurons by decreasing the release of glutamate, aricept fact sheet.
Learn how to increase concentration and boost memory, aricept fact sheet. Brain foods such as fish omega 3 fatty acidsberries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vitamins and more can help.
That part of the aricept fact sheet nervous system that is located within the cranium skull. See a picture of Brain Layers and learn more about the health topic. A brain tumor can be either non-cancerous benign or cancerous malignantprimary, or secondary. Common symptoms of a primary brain tumor are headaches, seizures, memory problems, aricept fact sheet, personality changes, and nausea and vomiting.
Causes and risk factors include age, gender, family history, and exposure to chemicals. Treatment is depends upon the tumor type, grade, and location. A CT scan is an X-ray procedure that combines many X-ray images with the aid of a computer to generate cross-sectional and three-dimensional images of internal organs and structures of the body, aricept fact sheet.
A CT scan is a low-risk procedure. Contrast material may be injected into a vein or the spinal fluid to enhance the scan. Discover dementia stages, aricept fact sheet, signs of dementia, causes, diagnosis, treatments, and medications. Take the Dental Health Quiz to test your IQ of oral hygiene, cavities, and common tongue and gum diseases. This quiz covers healthy mouths and teeth from brushing to flossing and everything in between check-ups! Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things.
The principal types of depression are major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disease also called manic-depressive disease. Symptoms and signs of HIV infection include fatigue, enlarged lymph glands, and recurrent vaginal yeast infections.
MRI or magnetic resonance imaging scan is a radiology technique which uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. Aricept fact sheet scanning is painless and does not involve X-ray radiation.